Rule 54. The Umpire's duties shall be as follows:

  1. The Umpire is the sole and absolute judge of play. In no instance shall any person be allowed to question the correctness of any decision made by him except the captains of the contending nines, and no other player shall, at such time, leave his position in the field, his place at the bat, on the bases, or player's bench, to approach or address the umpire in word or act upon such disputed decision, unless requested so to do by the umpire. Every player violating this provision shall be fined ten dollars for each offence by said umpire. Neither shall any manager or other officer of either club, except the captains, as before mentioned, be permitted to go upon the field, or address the umpire in regard to such decision, under penalty of a forfeiture of the game to the opposing club. The umpire shall in no case appeal to any spectator for information in regard to any such case, but may ask for information if he so desires, from one or more of the players.
  2. Before the commencement of a match Game the Umpire shall see that the ruled governing all the materials of the game are strictly observed. He shall ask the Captain of the Home Club whether there are any special ground rules to be enforced, and if there are, he shall see that they are duly enforced, provided they do not conflict with any of these Rules. He shall also ascertain whether the fence in the rear of the Catcher's position is distant ninety feet from the Home Base.
  3. In case the Umpire imposes a fine on a player, or declares a game forfeited, he shall transmit written notice thereof to the Secretary of the Association within twenty-four hours thereafter, under penalty of said fine being taken from his own salary for failure so to do.

Rule 55. The Umpire's Jurisdiction and Powers, in addition to those specified in the Constitution and the preceding Rules, are:

  1. He must keep the contesting nines playing constantly from the commencement of the game to its termination, allowing such delays only as are rendered unavoidable by accident, injury or rain. He must, until the completion of the game, require the players of each side to promptly take their positions in the field as soon as the third hand is put out, and must require the first striker of the opposite side to be in his position at the bat as soon as the Fielders are in their places.
  2. He shall in all cases enforce the strict letter of each Playing Rule herein, when requested by the Captain of either contesting club, particularly those restricting the delivery of the ball to the bat by the Pitcher.
  3. The players of the side "at bat" must occupy the portion of the Field allotted to them, subject to the condition that they must speedily vacate any portion thereof that may be in the way of the ball, or any fielder attempting to catch or field it. The triangular space behind the Home Base is reserved for the exclusive use of the Umpire, Catcher and Batsman, and the Umpire must prohibit any player of the side "at bat" from crossing the same at any time while the ball is in the hands of or passing between the Pitcher and Catcher while standing in their positions.
  4. The Umpire is master of the Field from the commencement to the termination of the game. And must compel the players to observe the provisions of all the Playing Rules, and he is hereby invested with authority to order any player to do or omit to do any act necessary to give force and effect to any and all of such provisions, and power to inflict upon any player disobeying any such order a fine of not less than five nor more than twenty-five dollars for each offence, and to impose a similar fine upon any player who shall use abusive, threatening or improper language to the Umpire.
  5. The Umpire shall, at once, notify the Captain of the offending player's side of the infliction of any fine herein provided for.

Rule 56. Special Provisions. No Umpire shall while in uniform enter any Pool Room or Saloon, under penalty of removal.


Rule 57. In order to Promote uniformity in Scoring Championship Games, the following instructions, suggestions and definitions are made for the benefit of scores of Association Clubs, and they are required to make the scores mentioned in Sec. 11, Article IX, of the Association Constitution in accordance therewith.


  1. The first item in the tabulation score, after the player's name and position, shall be the number of times he been at bat during the game. Any time or times where the player has been sent to base on called balls shall not be included in this column.
  2. In the second column should be set down the runs made by each player.
  3. In the third column should be placed the first base hits made by each player. A base hit should be scored in the following cases:

When the ball from the bat strikes the ground between the foul lines and out of reach of the fielders.

When a hit is partially or wholly stopped by a fielder in motion: but such player cannot recover himself in time to handle the ball before the striker reaches first base.

When the ball is hit so sharply to an infielder that he cannot handle it in time to put out a man. In case of doubt over this class of hits, score a base hit and exempt the fielder from the charge of an error.

When the ball is hit so slowly toward a fielder that he cannot handle it in time to put out a man.


  1. The number of opponents put out by each player shall be set down in the fourth column. Where a striker is given out by the Umpire for a foul strike or because he struck out of turn, the put-out shall be scored to the Catcher.
  2. The number of times the player assists shall be set down in the sixth column. An assist should be given to each player who handles the ball in a run-out or other play of the kind.

A strike out should be given to the pitcher when a batsman fails to hit the ball on the third strike, and in each case where the Batsman is declared out for making a foul strike, or striking out of turn. Such assistance to be placed in the summary of the score.

An assist should be given to a player who makes a play in time to put a runner out, even if the player who should complete the play, fails, through no fault of the player assisting.

And generally an assist should be given to each player who handles the ball from the time it leaves the bat until it reaches the player who makes the put-out, or in case of a thrown ball, to each player who throws or handles it cleanly, and in such way that a put-out results, or would result if no error were made by the receiver.

An error should be given for each miss-play which allows the striker or base-runner to make one or more bases, when perfect play would have insured his being put out. In scoring errors of batted balls, see Sec. 3 of this rule.


The summary shall contain:--

  1. The number of earned runs made by each side.
  2. The number of two base hits made by each player.
  3. The number of three base hits made by each player.
  4. The number of home runs made by each player.
  5. The number of men on each side left on bases.
  6. The number of double and triple plays made by each side with names of players assisting in same.
  7. The number of men struck out by each pitcher.
  8. The number of men given base on called balls by each pitcher.
  9. The number of men given bases on balls.
  10. The number of men given bases from being hit by pitched ball.
  11. The number of passed balls by each catcher.
  12. The number of wild pitches by each pitcher.
  13. The time of game.
  14. The name of the umpire.


Rule 58. No section of these Rules shall be constructed as conflicting with or affecting any article of the Constitution of the American Association.

Rule 59. No Amendment or change of any of these Rules shall be made, except in the manner provided in the Constitution of the American Association.

The Rules: 1890 Players' National League of Base Ball Clubs Continued.

The Rules of the Game: A Compilation of the Rules of Baseball 1845–1900 Continued.